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polyethylene (PEX) pipe
polyethylene, commonly abbreviated PEX or XLPE,
is a form of polyethylene
It is formed into tubing, and is used predominantly in building
services pipework systems, hydronic radiant heating and
cooling systems, domestic water piping, and insulation
for high tension (high voltage) electrical cables. It is also
used for natural
gas and offshore oil
applications, chemical transportation, and transportation of
sewage and slurries.
PEX has become a common alternative to polyvinyl
chloride (PVC), chlorinated
polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) or copper
tubing for use as residential water
PEX used for pipe and tubing is made from high-density
polyethylene (HDPE). PEX contains cross-linked bonds in
the polymer structure,
changing the thermoplastic
to a thermoset.
Cross-linking is accomplished during or after the extrusion
of the tubing. The required degree of cross-linking, according
Standard F876, is between 65 and 89%. A higher degree of cross-linking
could result in brittleness and stress cracking of the material
while a lower degree of cross-linking could result in product
with poorer physical properties.
improves the elevated-temperature properties of the base polymer.
Adequate strength to 120–150 °C
is maintained by reducing creep, the tendency to flow. Chemical
resistance is enhanced by resisting dissolution. Low temperature
properties are improved. Impact and tensile strength, scratch
resistance, and resistance to brittle fracture are enhanced.
cross-linkable polyethylene compounds (XLPE) for wire and cable
applications are based on LDPE.
XLPE-insulated cables have a rated maximum conductor temperature
of 90 °C and an emergency rating up to 140 °C, depending
on the standard used. They have a conductor short-circuit rating
of 250 °C. XLPE has excellent dielectric
properties, making it useful for medium voltage—10 to 50 kV
AC, and high
voltage cables—up to 380 kV AC-voltage, and several
hundred kV DC.
modifications in the basic polymer structure can be made to
maximize productivity during the manufacturing process. For
medium voltage applications, reactivity can be boosted significantly.
This results in higher line speeds in cases where limitations
in either the curing or cooling processes within the continuous
(CV) tubes used to cross-link the insulation. XLPE insulations
can be modified to limit the amount of by-product gases generated
during the cross-linking process. This is particularly useful
voltage cable and extra-high voltage cable applications,
where degassing requirements can significantly lengthen cable
PEX material was prepared in the 1930s, by irradiating
the extruded tube with an electron
beam. The electron
beam processing method was made feasible in the 1970s but
was still expensive. In the 1960s, Engel cross-linking was developed.
In this method, a peroxide
is mixed with the HDPE before extruding, the cross-linking taking
place during the passage of the melted polymer through a long
In 1968, the Sioplas process using silane
was patented, followed by another silane-based process, Monosil,
in 1974. A process using vinylsilane
followed in 1986.
pipe is manufactured with its design specifications listed directly
on the pipe. These specifications are listed to explain the
pipe’s many standards as well as giving specific detailing about
the manufacturer. The reason that all these specifications are
given, are so that the installer is aware if the product is
meeting standards for the necessary local codes. The labeling
ensures the user that the tubing is up to all the standards
used in PEX pipes in North America are defined by cell classifications
that are described in ASTM standards, the most common being
ASTM F876. Cell classifications for PEX include 0006, 0008,
1006, 1008, 3006, 3008, 5006 and 5008, the most common being
5006. Classifications 0306, 3306, 5206 and 5306 are also common,
these materials containing ultraviolet blockers and/or inhibitors
for limited UV resistance. In North America all PEX tubing products
are manufactured to ASTM, NSF and CSA product standards, among
them the aforementioned ASTM standard F876 as well as F877,
International standards NSF 14 and NSF 61 ("NSF-pw"), and
Standards Association standard B137.5, to which the pipes
are tested, certified and listed. The listings and certifications
met by each product appear on the printline of the pipe or tubing
to ensure the product is used in the proper applications for
which it was designed.
standards there are three classifications are referred to as
PEX-A, -B, and -C. The classes are not related to any type of
produced by the peroxide (Engel) method. This method performs
"hot" cross-linking, above the crystal melting point. However,
the process takes slightly longer than the other two methods
as the polymer has to be kept at high temperature and pressure
for long periods during the extrusion process. The cross-linked
bonds are between carbon
method, also called the "moisture cure" method, results in PEX-B.
In this method, cross-linking is performed in a secondary post-extrusion
process, producing cross-links between a cross-linking agent.
The process is accelerated with heat and moisture. The cross-linked
bonds are formed through silanol condensation between two grafted
vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) units, connecting the polyethylene
chains with C-C-Si-O-Si-C-C bridges.
produced through electron
beam processing, in a "cold" cross-linking process (below
the crystal melting point). It provides less uniform, lower-degree
cross-linking than the Engel method, especially at tube diameters
over one inch (2.5 cm). When the process is not controlled
properly, the outer layer of the tube may become brittle. However,
it is the cleanest, most environmentally friendly method of
the three, since it does not involve other chemicals and uses
only high-energy electrons to split the carbon-hydrogen
bonds and facilitate cross-linking.
heating system manifold using PEX tubing
including this copper exterior valve as well as PEX, can
burst from freezing, although several reports suggest that
PEX takes longer to burst under freezing conditions.
flexibility means fewer connections, better water flow,
faster and easier installations.
compression fitting makes it possible to join copper and
PEX pipes by simply pushing them together for a watertight
crimp fittings, another popular type of fittings primarily
used for connection PEX to PEX, PEX to Threaded pipes. 1.Drop
Ear Elbows connect PEX and threaded pipe at a 90-degree
2.PEX to Copper Solder Adapter 3.PEX to Copper Threaded
Adapter 4.PEX to Female Threaded Adapter 5.PEX Plug - terminate
end of pipe 6.PEX to PEX Coupling 7.PEX to PEX 90-degree
Elbow 8.PEX to Copper Adapter 9.PEX to Copper 90-degree
Elbow 10. PEX x PEX x PEX 3-way PEX Tee.
and fittings used in a plumbing installation with PEX piping.
(1) crimping tool to squeeze a metal band to join a pipe
and a fitting (2) compression coupling joining two 1/2 inch
pipes (copper or PEX) (3) "T-joint" to connect 3/4", 3/4",
and 1/2" pipes (4) Copper-to-PEX 1/2" connection (requires
soldering) (5 and 6) tools to undo PEX connections (7) crimp
rings to squeeze metal band to connect PEX to a fixture
(8) PEX tube cutter.
is widely used to replace copper in plumbing applications. One
estimate is that residential use of PEX for delivering drinking
water to home faucets has increased by 40% annually,
and there is substantial evidence that PEX is or will soon become
the dominant technology for carrying water in homes and businesses
in the next decade or so. In 2006, The
Philadelphia Inquirer recommended that plumbing installers
switch from copper pipes to PEX.
In the 20th
century, mass-produced plumbing pipes were made from galvanized
steel. As users experienced problems with the internal build-up
of rust, which reduced
water volume, these were replaced by copper
tubing in the late 1960s.
Plastic pipes with fittings using glue were used as well in
later decades. Initially PEX tubing was the most popular way
to transport water in hydronic
radiant heating systems, and it was used first in hydronic
systems from the 1960s onwards.
Hydronic systems circulate water from a boiler or heater to
places in the house needing heat, such as baseboard heaters
PEX is suitable for recirculating hot water.
PEX became more accepted for more indoor plumbing uses, such
as carrying pressurized water to fixtures throughout the house.
Increasingly, in the 2000s, copper pipes as well as plastic
PVC pipes are being replaced with PEX.
PEX can be used for underground purposes, although one report
suggested that appropriate "sleeves" be used for such applications.
of using PEX in plumbing include:
PEX has become a contender for use in residential water plumbing
because of its flexibility.
It can bend into a wide-radius turn if space permits, or accommodate
turns by using elbow joints. In addition, it can handle short-radius
turns, sometimes supported with a metal brace; in contrast,
PVC, CPVC and copper
all require elbow joints. A single length of PEX pipe cannot
handle a sharp 90-degree turn, however, so in those situations,
it is necessary to connect two PEX pipes with a 90-degree
PEX elbow joint.
routing of pipes. PEX can run straight from a distribution
point to an outlet fixture without cutting or splicing the
pipe. This reduces the need for potentially weak and costly
joints and reduces the drop in pressure due to turbulence
induced at transitions. Since PEX is flexible, it is often
possible to install a supply line directly from the water
source to an appliance using just one connection at each end.
water pressure at fixtures. Since PEX pipes typically
have fewer sharp turns, there is greater water pressure at
the sinks and showers and toilets where it is needed.
materials cost. Cost of materials is approximately 25%
One account suggested that the price of copper had quadrupled
from 2002 to 2006.
installation. Installing PEX is much less labor-intensive
than copper pipes, since there is no need to use torches to
solder pipes together, or to use glue to attach pipes to fittings.
inspector wrote that "Once you've worked with PEX, you'll
never go back to that other stinky glue stuff."
Builders putting in radiant heating systems found that PEX
pipes "made installation easy and operation problem-free".
PEX connections can be made by pushing together two matching
parts using a compression fitting, or by using an adjustable
wrench or a special
Generally, fewer connections and fittings are needed in a
PEX, unlike copper, is not subject to corrosion from minerals
fire risk during installation. The oldest and most common
method for joining copper piping is to solder pieces together
using a torch. With an open flame there is always the risk
of causing a fire in the surrounding structure, but PEX installation
does not require a flame. However, there was an unfortunate
counter-incident in 2011 in which authorities suspect that
six firefighters were injured in a ceiling collapse. A fire
melted PEX pipes, causing water to soak into ceiling insulation,
adding weight which caused the ceiling to collapse. The PEX
tubing was not blamed as the cause of the fire.
to merge new PEX with existing copper and PVC systems.
Manufacturers make fittings allowing installers to join a
copper pipe on one end with a PEX line at the other,
as well as giving options to reduce or expand the diameter
of the pipes.
The advantageous properties of PEX also make it a candidate
for progressive replacement of metal and thermoplastic pipes,
especially in long-life applications, because the expected
lifetime of PEX pipes reaches 50 years. However, the longest
warranty offered by any PEX producer is 25 years.
for hot and cold pipes. A convenient arrangement is to
use color-coding to lessen the possibility of confusion.
Typically, red PEX tubing is used for hot water while blue
PEX tubing is used for cold water.
likely to burst from freezing. The general position is
that PEX plastic materials are slower to burst than copper
or PVC pipes, but that they will burst eventually since freezing
causes water to expand.
One account suggested that PEX water-filled pipes, frozen
over time, will swell and tear; in contrast, copper pipe "rips"
and PVC "shatters".
Home expert Steve Maxwell suggested in 2007 that PEX water-filled
pipes could endure "five or six freeze-thaw cycles without
splitting" while copper would split apart promptly on the
In new unheated seasonal homes, it is still recommended to
drain pipes during an unheated cold season or take other measures
to prevent pipes from bursting because of the cold. In new
construction, it is recommended that all water pipes be sloped
slightly to permit drainage, if necessary.
benefits. One account suggested that PEX used in radiant
heating was better for the environment than copper, although
it noted that the pipes were based on petroleum products.
insulation possible. Conventional foam wrap insulation
materials can be added to PEX piping to keep hot water hot,
and cold water cold, and prevent freezing, if necessary.
from sunlight. PEX tubing cannot be used in applications
exposed to sunlight, as it degrades fairly rapidly.
Prior to installation it must be stored away from sunlight,
and needs to be shielded from daylight after installation.
Leaving it exposed to direct sunlight for as little as 30
days may result in premature failure of the tubing due to
by insects. PEX tubing is vulnerable to being perforated
by the mouthparts of plant-feeding insects; in particular,
conifer seed bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis) is
known to sometimes pierce through PEX tubing, resulting in
with yellow brass fittings. There have been some claimed
PEX systems failures in the U.S., Canada and Europe resulting
in several pending class
action lawsuits. The failures are claimed to be a result
of the brass fittings used in the PEX system. Generally, builders
and manufacturers have learned from these experiences and
have found the best materials for use in fittings used to
connect pipe with connectors, valves and other fittings. But
there were problems reported with a specific type of brass
fitting used in connection with installations in Nevada
that caused a negative interaction between its mineral-rich
and so-called "yellow brass" fittings.
Zinc in the fittings leached into the pipe material in a chemical
reaction known as dezincification,
causing some leaks or blockages.
A solution was to replace the yellow brass fittings, which
had 30% zinc, with red brass fittings, which had 5% to 10%
It led California building authorities to insist on fittings
made from "red brass" which typically has a lower zinc content,
and is unlikely to cause problems in the future since problems
with these specific fittings have become known.
adjustment to a new plumbing system. There were a few
reported problems in the early stages as plumbers and homeowners
learned to adjust to the new fittings, and when connections
were poorly or improperly made, but home inspectors have generally
not noticed any problems with PEX since 2000.
adhesives for pipe insulation. One source suggested that
pipe insulation, applied to PEX using certain adhesives, could
have a detrimental effect causing the pipe to age prematurely;
however, other insulating materials can be used, such as conventional
foam wrap insulation, without negative effects.
expenses. Generally, PEX fittings, particularly the do-it-yourself
compression ones, are more expensive than copper ones, although
there is no soldering required.
Due to the flexibility of PEX, it generally requires fewer
fittings, which tends to offset the higher cost per fitting.
problems for PEX radiant heating with iron-based components.
If plain PEX tubing is used in a radiant heating system that
has ferrous radiators
or other parts, meaning they are made out of iron
or its alloys, then there is the possibility of rust
developing over time; if this is the case, then one solution
is to have an "oxygen barrier" in these systems to prevent
rust from developing. Most modern installations of PEX for
heating use oxygen barrier coated PEX.
and chemical taste in potable water.
health effects. There was controversy in California
during the 2000s about health concerns. Several groups blocked
adoption of PEX for concerns about chemicals getting into
the water, either from chemicals outside the pipes, or from
chemicals inside the pipes such as methyl
tertiary butyl ether and tertiary
These concerns delayed statewide adoption of PEX for almost
a decade. After substantial "back-and-forth legal wrangling",
which was described as a "judicial rollercoaster", the disputing
groups came to a consensus, and California permitted use of
PEX in all occupancies.
impact report and subsequent studies determined there
were no causes for concerns about public health from use of
been approved for use in all fifty states of the United
States as well as Canada,
including the initially reluctant state of California,
which approved its use in 2009.
California allowed the use of PEX for domestic water systems
on a case-by-case basis only in 2007.
This was mostly due to issues with corrosion of the manifolds,
not the tubing itself, and was allowed in California when used
in hydronic radiant heating systems. In 2009, the Building Standards
Commission approved PEX plastic pipe and tubing to the California
Plumbing Code (CPC), allowing its use in hospitals, clinics,
residential and commercial construction throughout the state.
Formal adoption of PEX into the CPC occurred on August 1, 2009,
allowing local jurisdictions to approve its general use,
although there were additional issues, and new approvals were
issued in 2010 with revised wordings of the 2007 act.
plumbing choices include:
plastic composite are aluminum tubes laminated on the
interior and exterior with plastic layers for protection.
stainless steel tubing, continuous flexible pipes made
out of stainless steel with a PVC exterior and are air-tested
Pipe, similar in application to CPVC but a chemically
inert material containing no harmful substances and reduced
dangerous emissions when consumed by fire. It is primarily
utilized in radiant floor systems but is gaining popularity
as a leach-free domestic potable water pipe, primarily in
(PB) Pipe is a form of plastic polymer that was used in
the manufacture of potable water piping from late 70's until
1995. However, it was discovered that the polyoxymethylene
(POM or Acetal) connectors originally utilized to connect
the polybutylene tubes were susceptible to stress enhanced
chemical attack by hypochlorite additions (a common chemical
used to sanitize water). Degraded connectors can crack and
leak in highly stressed crimped areas, causing damage to the
surrounding building structure. Later systems containing copper
fittings do not appear to have issues with hypochlorite attack,
but polybutylene has still fallen out of favor due to costly
structural damage caused by earlier issues and is not accepted
in Canada and U.S.
pipes, or AluPEX, or PEX/Aluminum/PEX, or Multilayer
pipes are made of a layer of aluminum
sandwiched between two layers of PEX. The metal layer serves
as an oxygen barrier,
stopping the oxygen diffusion through the polymer matrix, so
it cannot dissolve into the water in the tube and corrode the
metal components of the system.
The aluminium layer is thin, typically 1 or 2 mm, and provides
some rigidity to the tube such that when bent it retains the
shape formed (normal PEX tube will spring back to straight).
The aluminium layer also provides additional structural rigidity
such that the tube will be suitable for higher safe operating
temperatures and pressures.
A PEX tool
kit includes a number of basic tools
required for making fittings and connections with PEX tubing.
In most cases, such kits are either bought at a local hardware
store, plumbing supply store or assembled by either a home
owner or a contractor.
PEX tools kits range from under $100 and can go up to $300+.
A typical PEX tool kit includes crimp
tools, an expander tool for joining, clamp
tools, PEX cutters, rings, boards, and staplers.
uses for PEX
joints. Highly cross-linked polyethylene is used in artificial
joints as a wear-resistant material. Cross-linked polyethylene
is preferred in hip
replacement because of its resistance to abrasive wear.
replacement, however, requires PE made with different
parameters because cross-linking may affect mechanical strength
and there is greater stress-concentration in knee joints due
to lower geometric congruency of the bearing surfaces. Manufacturers
start with ultra
high molecular weight polyethylene, and crosslink with
either electron beam or gamma irradiation.
applications. Some application of PEX has also been seen
in dental restoration as a composite filling material.
PEX is also used in many canoes and kayaks. The PEX is listed
by the name Ram-X, and other brand specific names. Because
of the properties of Cross-Linked Polyethylene, repair of
any damage to the hull is rather difficult. Some adhesives,
such as 3M's DP-8005, are able to bond to PEX, while larger
repairs require melting and mixing more Polyethylene into
the canoe/kayak to form a solid bond and fill the damaged
cable insulation. Cross-linked polyethylene is widely
used as electrical insulation in power
cables of all voltage ranges but it is especially well
suited to medium voltage applications. It is the most common
polymeric insulation material. The acronym XLPE is commonly
used to denote cross-linked polyethylene insulation.
ducts and housings. PEX also referred to as XLPE is widely
used in the aftermarket automotive industry for cold air intake
systems and filter housings. Its properties include high heat
deflection temperature, good impact resistance, chemical resistance,
low flexural modulus and good environmental stress crack resistance.
This form of XLPE is most commonly used in rotational
molding; the XLPE resin comes in the form of a 35 mesh
Pipe Markings". July 19, 2015.
All PEX pipe is manufactured with its design specifications
listed directly on the pipe. These specifications are listed
to explain the pipe’s many standards as well as giving specific
detailing about the manufacturer. The reason that all these
specifications are given, are so that the installer is aware
if the product is meeting standards for the necessary local
codes. The labeling ensures the user that the tubing is
up to all the standards listed.
<ref> tag; name "twsI13"
defined multiple times with different content (see the help
Jay (September 3, 2006). "If
Copper Pipes Are Too Costly ...". The New York Times.
The price of copper has nearly quadrupled over the last
four years, and plumbers and do-it-yourselfers are taking
a fresh look at alternatives to copper tubing and fittings.
And what some are turning to is a flexible synthetic material
Barry (July 22, 2006). "50-Year-Old
House Warrants Special Scrutiny". The Washington
Post. Retrieved 2011-07-09.
The use of galvanized steel water piping was abandoned
in favor of copper in the late 1960s, and now the plumbing
industry has moved from copper to PEX (cross-link polyethylene).
The problem with old galvanized pipes is that they usually
have internal rust build-up, which reduces water volume....
(Barry Stone => home inspector)
Al (January 20, 2011). "Trying
to keep radiant floor project out of hot water". Chicago
Tribune. McClatchy/Tribune News.
Hydronic systems circulate water from a boiler or water
heater through loops of polyethylene tubing, often called
by the brand name Pex, but there are others. Tubing is typically
installed on top of the subfloor in grooved panels or snap-in
grids; clipped into aluminum strips on the underside of
the floor; or embedded in poured concrete, or a lighter,
concrete-like material in bathrooms or kitchens especially.
Robert P. (Sep 2, 2010). "California
approves PEX for plumbing — again". Contractor Mag.
PEX became part of the California Plumbing Code in August
2009, following the CBSC's January 2009 certification of
an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) on PEX and the commission's
ensuing unanimous adoption of regulations approving PEX
water distribution systems.... The Commission's action allows
the statewide use of PEX in hospitals, clinics, schools,
residences and commercial structures.... The CBSC reinstated
PEX with the caveats that underground PEX must be sleeved,
the material had to stand up to recirculating hot water,
the fittings won't de-zincify, and PEX systems had to be
filled and flushed....
Alan J. (August 11, 2006). "No
cool solution to removing heated tiles". The Philadelphia
that the radiant floor heating involves piping that is embedded
in Gypcrete, a lightweight blend of concrete and gypsum
that, in concert with a shift to flexible PEX piping, has
made installation easy and operation problem-free.
Television program Ed The
Jan Ellen (April 20, 2008). "The
House That Green Built". The New York Times.
(Page 2 of 4) There is radiant floor heating, and the
toilets use rainwater stored in a cistern. The floors, doors
and wall paneling are reclaimed from vintage homes that
were torn down elsewhere in the state. Instead of copper
pipes, water will travel through Pex piping, less expensive
flexible polyethylene tubes that are petroleum-based, but
still may be greener than copper pipe. "It is a compromise,"
said Mr. Johnson, who said he worried a little about the
health aspects of Pex. "I couldn't get a good read on that,
to tell you the truth. I sort of got exhausted in asking
a bunch of people."
John (2009-07-13). "Pex
issues". Inspection News.
Once you've worked with PEX, you'll never go back to
that other stinky glue stuff. We see copper stubs at the
water heater (sometimes), the rest is PEX. Also, when they
use the red and blue colors, hot is hot and cold is cold
Michael (February 21, 2011). "Officials
probe structural issues in home where L.A. firefighter killed".
Los Angeles Times. Retrieved
through the attic were plastic pipes for fire sprinklers.
The fire melted the pipes, flooding the attic and filling
the insulation with water, Peaks said. The weight of the
insulation appears to have caused a large section of the
ceiling to collapse, injuring Allen and five other firefighters,
Jay (January 28, 2009). "Before,
and After, the Last Drop". The New York Times.
Pipes, traditionally made of copper, can burst if the
water inside freezes, because water expands when frozen,
but copper does not. If the water expands too much, it has
nowhere to go but out, forcing the pipe to burst at the
frozen spot. Tom Kraeutler, a host of the syndicated radio
show "The Money Pit", said most houses have one particular
spot where the pipes tend to freeze. If there is fairly
consistent freezing in an area, he said, it is wise to reroute
the pipes and to replace them with PEX — a flexible plastic
tubing that is much less likely to burst than copper. Like
copper, though, PEX can freeze, as Mr. Carter, who moved
in December, now knows. The house was built with modern
materials, including PEX, but because the place was only
six years old, he didn't think he had to worry about frozen
Stacy (February 24, 2006). "Frozen
pipes can lead to flood of woe". Chicago Tribune.
Frozen pipes break differently depending on the material,
Water said. Copper rips, PVC (polyvinyl chloride) shatters
and PEX (polyethylene) swells and tears.
Steve (Jul 14, 2007). "Drywall
may not work on waterfront". Toronto Star.
Start by making sure that all runs of water supply pipe
are sloped downwards slightly to central drain valves. Also,
be sure to specify that all drain traps remain accessible,
and be the kind that includes a removable plug on the bottom.
As an added precaution, install PEX-al-PEX supply pipes
instead of copper. If water accidentally remains in these
pipes, they'll endure five or six freeze-thaw cycles without
splitting. Copper pipe, on the other hand, splits apart
promptly when it contains water that freezes.
Steve (Feb 28, 2009). "Put
basement repair to wet weather test". Toronto Star.
Q: Is it safe to use pipe wrap insulation on PEX water
supply pipes? In a magazine put out by a home improvement
retailer, it warns that a chemical reaction between insulation
and PEX will eventually destroy the pipes. Is this true?
A: To answer your question, I contacted one of the world's
largest producers of PEX pipe. The only potential issue
they know of has to do with certain types of adhesives touching
the pipe surface. PEX includes antioxidants for stabilizing
against chlorine, and these antioxidants can become destabilized
in a reaction with adhesives, possibly aging the pipe prematurely.
That said, they don't know of any issues relating to a chemical
reaction between PEX and conventional foam pipe wrap insulation.
I've installed foam insulation on PEX in my own house about
a year ago, and there's no visible signs of trouble.
Bill; Katen, Jim; Kienitz, Nolan E. (2006–2007). "PEX
and sunlight issues". The Inspector's Journal.
Well, the manufacturers' instruction I've read and the
Plastic Pipe Assoc. says it can't be installed where exposed
to direct sunlight.... I've heard of some pretty serious
problems with PEX that's exposed to sunlight. Your client's
concerns are valid.... Another big factor is how the product
has been "handled" from manufacture to site installation....
I had a client, with a new home, that was purchased back
by the plumbing company due to mis-handling of the PEX that
had caused over 10 leaks in less than 7 months.
Bates, S.L. 2005. Damage to
common plumbing materials caused by overwintering Leptoglossus
occidentalis (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Canadian
Entomologist 137: 492-496.[journals.cambridge.org/article_S0008347X00002807]
Jeff (Jan 22, 2009). "Pipe
work begins in homes involved in Kitec lawsuit". Las
Vegas Sun. Retrieved
pipes contained a thin layer of aluminum that held its shape
as plumbers twisted and bent it. Plastic pipes without the
aluminum require more anchoring because they spring back
to a straight line. The pipes aren't failing though. It's
the brass fittings that connect the pipes to copper fixtures
on valves, water heaters and softeners. The problem is a
chemical reaction known as dezincification, which accelerates
corrosion in brass fittings when they are exposed to oxygen
and moisture. Brass is an alloy primarily composed of copper
and zinc. When dezincification occurs, zinc leaches out
of the fittings, leaving a blockage of zinc oxide that leads
to leaks, restricted water flow and breaks.
<ref> tag; name "twsI26"
defined multiple times with different content (see the help
Ted (2009-07-13). "Pex
issues". Inspection News.
Just a couple of leaks at poorly applied connections.
Other than that I have not really seen any. Most, not all,
but most new homes have PEX. There are some that still use
only copper. have seen it used a lot in remodel with many
homes I have inspected that have had repiping. It is easier
to run through the attics and crawls. I guess it has been,
what, 10 years or so since its major use. I guess only time
will tell. There were many complaints in the very beginning
but not much now.
Umbra (2015-01-08). "Is
It Safe to Drink Water out of Plastic Pipes?". Grist.org.
Building Standards Code" (PDF).
State of California. 2007.
... PEX material is susceptible to chemical leaching,
both from the outside environment and chemicals leaching
out of the PEX material itself....
Rollercoaster: After a recent exclusion, PEX pipe is back
in the California Plumbing Code". Plumbing &
Mechanical. October 1, 2010.
... controversy in California ... resulting in a flurry
of back-and-forth legal wrangling over health, safety and
performance issues related to the flexible pipe.... That
judicial rollercoaster finally came to a halt in mid-August
when a coalition of consumer, environmental, public health
and labor organizations reached an agreement with the state
and the plastic pipe industry ... As a result, the California
Building Standards Commission now allows the use of PEX
in all occupancies...
Jack (October 1, 2010). "What
was that flurry of activity this past summer?". Reeves
Journal. Retrieved 2011-08-15.
It boiled up, came to a head and was then over almost
as quickly as it takes to tell the tale. PEX, formally known
as crosslinked polyethylene tubing-was given the administrative
heave-ho from the California plumbing codes. Then, almost
as quickly as the word could get passed out to the industry-at-large,
PEX was back the state's good graces, albeit with a few
stipulations on its use that weren't there before.
2007 CPC Table 6-4 Footnote
1; previously: 2001 CPC 604.1 #2
Release) PEX Plastic Pipe Unanimously Added to California
Plumbing Code; State Officials Certify Favorable Environmental
Impact Report". Reuters. January 27, 2009.
Retrieved June 23, 2009.
Standards Commission". State of California. 2010.
On August 16, 2010, the California Building Standards
Commission certified the Final Environmental Impact Report
and approved regulations allowing the use of PEX tubing.
The Approved Final Express Terms document represents the
final language that will be published into the 2007 California
Plumbing Code and the 2010 California Plumbing Code (Effective
Jan. 1, 2011) with the strikeout and underlining removed
for clarity. All remaining agencies' rulemaking documents
appearing on this page, were also approved by the Commission,
but do not have the strikeout and underlined removed.
choices". Home Heating Systems Newsletter. Archived
original on June 11, 2008.
ABOUT ORANGE COUNTY:
County is a county in Southern California, United States. Its
county seat is Santa Ana. According to the 2000 Census, its
population was 2,846,289, making it the second most populous
county in the state of California, and the fifth most populous
in the United States. The state of California estimates its
population as of 2007 to be 3,098,121 people, dropping its rank
to third, behind San Diego County. Thirty-four incorporated
cities are located in Orange County; the newest is Aliso Viejo.
Unlike many other large centers of population in the United
States, Orange County uses its county name as its source of
identification whereas other places in the country are identified
by the large city that is closest to them. This is because there
is no defined center to Orange County like there is in other
areas which have one distinct large city. Five Orange County
cities have populations exceeding 170,000 while no cities in
the county have populations surpassing 360,000. Seven of these
cities are among the 200 largest cities in the United States.
Orange County is also famous as a tourist destination, as the
county is home to such attractions as Disneyland and Knott's
Berry Farm, as well as sandy beaches for swimming and surfing,
yacht harbors for sailing and pleasure boating, and extensive
area devoted to parks and open space for golf, tennis, hiking,
kayaking, cycling, skateboarding, and other outdoor recreation.
It is at the center of Southern California's Tech Coast, with
Irvine being the primary business hub.
The average price of a home in Orange County is $541,000. Orange
County is the home of a vast number of major industries and
service organizations. As an integral part of the second largest
market in America, this highly diversified region has become
a Mecca for talented individuals in virtually every field imaginable.
Indeed the colorful pageant of human history continues to unfold
here; for perhaps in no other place on earth is there an environment
more conducive to innovative thinking, creativity and growth
than this exciting, sun bathed valley stretching between the
mountains and the sea in Orange County.
Orange County was Created March 11 1889, from part of Los Angeles
County, and, according to tradition, so named because of the
flourishing orange culture. Orange, however, was and is a commonplace
name in the United States, used originally in honor of the Prince
of Orange, son-in-law of King George II of England.
March 11, 1889
* Congressional: 38th-40th, 42nd & 43
* California Senate: 31st-33rd, 35th & 37
* California Assembly: 58th, 64th, 67th, 69th, 72nd &
County Seat: Santa Ana
Robert E. Thomas Hall of Administration
10 Civic Center Plaza, 3rd Floor, Santa Ana 92701
Telephone: (714)834-2345 Fax: (714)834-3098
County Government Website: http://www.oc.ca.gov
CITIES OF ORANGE COUNTY CALIFORNIA:
of Aliso Viejo,
92653, 92656, 92698
City of Anaheim,
92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808,
92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850,
City of Brea,
92821, 92822, 92823
City of Buena Park,
90620, 90621, 90622, 90623, 90624
City of Costa
Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628
City of Cypress,
City of Dana Point,
City of Fountain
Valley, 92708, 92728
City of Fullerton,
92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838
City of Garden
Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843, 92844, 92845, 92846
Huntington Beach, 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648,
City of Irvine,
92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92618,
92619, 92620, 92623, 92650, 92697, 92709, 92710
City of La Habra,
90631, 90632, 90633
City of La Palma,
City of Laguna
Beach, 92607, 92637, 92651, 92652, 92653, 92654, 92656,
City of Laguna
Hills, 92637, 92653, 92654, 92656
City of Laguna
Niguel, 92607, 92677
of Laguna Woods,
City of Lake
Forest, 92609, 92630, 92610
City of Los
Alamitos, 90720, 90721
City of Mission
Viejo, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92694
Newport Beach, 92657, 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661,
City of Orange,
92856, 92857, 92859, 92861, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865,
92866, 92867, 92868, 92869
City of Placentia,
City of Rancho Santa
Margarita, 92688, 92679
City of San Clemente,
92672, 92673, 92674
City of San
Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92693,
City of Santa
Ana, 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705, 92706, 92707,
92708, 92711, 92712, 92725, 92728, 92735, 92799
City of Seal
City of Stanton,
City of Tustin,
92780, 92781, 92782
City of Villa Park,
City of Westminster,
92683, 92684, 92685
City of Yorba
Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887
communities Some of the communities that exist within
city limits are listed below:
* Anaheim Hills, Anaheim * Balboa Island, Newport Beach
* Corona del Mar, Newport Beach * Crystal Cove / Pelican
Hill, Newport Beach * Capistrano Beach, Dana Point * El
Modena, Orange * French Park, Santa Ana * Floral Park,
Santa Ana * Foothill Ranch, Lake Forest * Monarch Beach,
Dana Point * Nellie Gail, Laguna Hills * Northwood, Irvine
* Woodbridge, Irvine * Newport Coast, Newport Beach *
Olive, Orange * Portola Hills, Lake Forest * San Joaquin
Hills, Laguna Niguel * San Joaquin Hills, Newport Beach
* Santa Ana Heights, Newport Beach * Tustin Ranch, Tustin
* Talega, San Clemente * West Garden Grove, Garden Grove
* Yorba Hills, Yorba Linda * Mesa Verde, Costa Mesa
Unincorporated communities These communities are outside
of the city limits in unincorporated county territory:
* Coto de Caza * El Modena * Ladera Ranch * Las Flores
* Midway City * Orange Park Acres * Rossmoor * Silverado
Canyon * Sunset Beach * Surfside * Trabuco Canyon * Tustin
Adjacent counties to Orange County Are: * Los Angeles
County, California - north, west * San Bernardino County,
California - northeast * Riverside County, California
- east * San Diego County, California - southeast
ORANGE COUNTY, ORANGE COUNTY PLUMBING
RE-PIPING SLAB LEAKS, WATER HEATERS,
PEX REPIPE EXPERTS
LEAKS, HOMES, HOMES, PIPING,
REPIPING, INSTALLATION OF TUBS, SINKS, DRAINS, HOT TUBS, BATHTUBS,
SHOWERS, TOILETS, FLOODING, WATER DAMAGE, DRAIN LINES, FAUCETS,
WATER HEATING, WATER, VALVES, EMERGENCY WATER HEATERS, EQUIPMENT
INSTALLATION, PEX REPIPING, PEX REPIPINGLING
EMERGENCY REPAIR - INSURANCE REPAIRS - INSTALLATION
An Honest Job Is A Great Days Work! "
do you become famous? Helping people! Changing their lives
and making a difference in their lives.
Loving them... Eric Brenn
This Business was Awarded - Best in
Business, Orange County CA, Visit:
Orange County, CA
is many times as much about construction as fixing pipes
When they break, it usually is not where you can see
them or they have caused great water damage. It is wonderful
to have a contractor and plumber together to open walls
correctly and be able to fix them. Be able to work with
insurance companies on water damage and get you back
Viejo 92656, 92698,
Anaheim 92801, 92802, 92803,
92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814,
92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899,
Brea, 92821, 92822,92823,
Buena Park, 90620 ,90621,90622,
90624, Capistrano Beach,
Corona del Mar, 92625,
Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627,
Dana Point, 92629,
East Irvine, 92650,
El Toro, 92609,
Foothill Ranch, 92610,
Fountain Valley, 92708,
Fullerton, 92831, 92832,
92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838,
Garden Grove, 92840, 92841,
92842, 92843 ,92844, 92845, 92846,
Huntington Beach , 92605,
92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649,
Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604,
92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92617, 92618, 92619, 92620,
La Habra, 90631, 90632,
La Palma, 90623,
Ladera Ranch, 92694,
Laguna Beach , 92651, 92652,
Laguna Hills ,92653, 92654,92607,92677,
Laguna Woods, 92637,
Lake Forest, 92630,
Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721,
Midway City, 92655,
Mission Viejo, 92690, 92691,
Newport Beach , 92658,
92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663, 92657,
Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859,
92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869,
Placentia, 92870, 92871,
Rancho Santa Margarita 92688,
San Clemente, 92672, 92673,
San Juan Capistrano, 92675,
Santa Ana , 92701, 92702,
92703, 92704, 92705 ,92706, 92707, 92711, 92712, 92725.92735,
Seal Beach , 90740,
Sunset Beach 90742,
Trabuco Canyon, 92678,
Tustin ,92780, 92781,92782,
Villa Park, 92861,
92683, 92684, 92685,
Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886,
PEX REPIPE EXPERTS ORANGE
COUNTY CA, ORANGE COUNTY PEX REPIPING
PEX PIPING INSTALLATION ORANGE COUNTY CA