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of propane water heaters.
heating is a thermodynamic process using an energy source
to heat water above its initial temperature. Typical domestic
uses of hot water are for cooking, cleaning, bathing, and space
heating. In industry, both hot water and water heated to steam
have many uses.
water is traditionally heated in vessels known as hot water
heaters, kettles, cauldrons, pots,
or coppers. These metal vessels heat a batch of water
but do not producing a continual supply of heated water at a
preset temperature. The temperature will vary based on the consumption
rate of hot water, use more and the water becomes cooler.
for providing a more-or-less constant supply of hot water are
variously known as water heaters, boilers, heat
exchangers, calorifiers, or geysers depending
on whether they are heating potable or non-potable water, in
domestic or industrial use, their energy source, and in which
part of the world they are found. In domestic installations,
potable water heated for uses other than space heating is sometimes
known as domestic hot water (DHW).
countries the most common energy sources for heating water are
fossil fuels: natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, oil, or
sometimes solid fuels. These fuels may be consumed directly
or by the use of electricity (which may derive from any of the
above fuels or from nuclear or renewable sources). Alternative
energy such as solar energy, heat pumps, hot water heat recycling,
and sometimes geothermal heating, may also be used as available,
usually in combination with backup systems supplied by gas,
oil or electricity.
countries district heating is a major source of water heating.
This is especially the case in Scandinavia. District heating
systems make it possible to supply all of the energy for water
heating as well as space heating from waste heat from industries,
power plants, incinerators, geothermal heating, and central
solar heating. The actual heating of the tap water is performed
in heat exchangers at the consumers premises. Generally the
consumer needs no backup system due to the very high availability
of district heating systems.
of water heating appliance
space heating may be heated by fossil fuels in a boiler. Potable
water may be heated in a separate appliance: this is common
practice in the USA where warm-air space heating is usually
space-heating water boiler is employed the traditional arrangement
in the UK is to use boiler-heated ("primary") water to
heat ("secondary") water in a cylindrical vessel (usually
made of copper) containing potable water supplied from a cold
water storage vessel/container, usually in the roof space of
the building. This produces a fairly steady supply of DHW at
low static pressure head but usually with a good flow. Water
heating appliances in most other parts of the world do not use
cold water storage vessel/container but heat water at pressures
close to that of the incoming mains water supply.
appliances for instantaneously heating water for DHW (Domestic
Hot Water) are known in North America as tankless heaters,
elsewhere as multipoint heaters, geysers or Ascots.
In Australia and New Zealand there was a similar wood fired
appliance known as the chip heater.
arrangement where hot-water space heating is employed is for
the boiler to also heat potable water giving a continuous supply
of DHW without any extra equipment required. Appliances capable
of supplying both space-heating and DHW are known as combination
(or "combi") boilers.
instantaneous heaters can give a continuous supply of DHW the
rate at which they can produce it is limited by the thermodynamics
of heating water from the available fuel supplies.
popular arrangement where higher flow rates are required (although
for limited periods) is to heat water in a pressure vessel capable
of withstanding a hydrostatic pressure close to that of the
incoming mains supply. (A pressure reducing valve is usually
employed to limit the pressure to a safe level for the vessel.)
America these vessels are known as tanks and may incorporate
a gas or oil burner heating the water directly.
space heating boilers are used DHW cylinders are usually heated
indirectly by primary water from the boiler, or by an electric
immersion heater (often as backup to the boiler). In the UK
these vessels are known as unvented cylinders (or commonly
as Megaflos after the brand name of a widely-used model).
In the US, when connected to a boiler they are known as indirect-fired
residences in the US at about 10 °C (50 °F) (varies
with latitude and season). Hot water temperatures of 40–49 °C
(105–120 °F) are preferred for dishwashing, laundry and showering;
requiring the water temperature to be raised about 30 °C
(54 °F) or more, if the hot water is later mixed with cold
water. The Uniform Plumbing Code reference shower flow rate
is 2.5 gpm (gallons per minute); sink and dishwasher usage's
range from 1–3 gpm.
gas in the U.S. is measured in CCF (100 cubic feet), which is
converted to a standardized heat content unit called the therm,
equal to 100,000 British thermal units. A BTU is the energy
required to raise one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.
A US gallon of water weighs 8.3 pounds. So, to raise a 40-gallon
tank of 55 °F water up to 105 °F would require 40
x 8.3 x (105 - 55) / 100,000 BTU, or approximately 0.17 CCF,
at 100% efficiency. A 40,000 BTU (per hour) heater would take
25 minutes to do this, at 100% efficiency. At $1 per therm,
the cost of the gas would be about 17 cents.
a typical electric water heater has a 4500 watt heating element,
which if 100% efficient results in a heating time of about 1.1
hours. Since 16,600 BTU is roughly 4.9 kWh, at 10 cents/kWh
the electricity would cost $0.49. Operating a shower at 2.5
gpm and 104 degrees Fahrenheit is equivalent to operating a
13.2 kW appliance. In the UK, domestic electric immersion heaters
are usually rated at 3 kilowatts.
of water heaters in residential use can vary greatly, particularly
based on manufacturer and model. However, electric heaters tend
to be slightly more efficient (if one omits the power station
losses) with recovery efficiency (how efficient energy is transferred
to the water) reaching about 98%. Gas fired heaters have maximum
recovery efficiencies of only about 86% (the remaining heat
is lost with the flue gasses). Overall energy factors can be
as low as 80% for electric and 50% for gas systems.
water heater operating at those same power levels (at 100% efficiency)
would be able to supply 1.6 gpm continuously, raising the temperature
by 50 °F. The same unit could supply 1.3 gpm while raising
the temperature by 60 °F. To be able to handle a full house
load of multiple uses (at least 5 gpm) with a centralized tankless
water heater would require three to four times this power level —
somewhat difficult to achieve with natural gas, and very difficult
to achieve with electricity. Many tankless water heaters can
use over 100,000 BTU/h during high flow, and so require especially
large power supplies.
it takes a great deal of energy to heat water, as one may experience
when attempting to boil a gallon of water on a stove. For this
reason, tankless on-demand water heaters need to have a very
large energy source to be usable. A wall outlet, by comparison,
can only source enough energy to warm a disappointingly small
amount of water: about 0.17 gpm at 40 °C temperature elevation.
and commercial usage, most water heaters in North America are
of the tank type. Also called storage water heaters,
these consist of a cylindrical vessel/container in which water
is kept continuously hot and ready for use. Typical sizes for
household use range from 75 to 400 litres (20 to 100 US gallons).
These may use electricity, natural gas, propane, heating oil,
solar, or other energy sources. Natural gas heaters are most
popular in the United States and most European countries, since
the gas is often conveniently piped throughout cities and towns
and currently is the cheapest to use. Compared to tankless heaters,
storage water heaters have the advantage of using energy (gas
or electricity) at a relatively slow rate, storing the heat
for later use. Larger vessel/containers tend to provide hot
water with less temperature fluctuation at moderate flow rates.
hot water heaters in the United States and New Zealand are typically
vertical, cylindrical tanks, usually standing on the floor or
on a platform raised a short distance above the floor. Volume
storage hot water heaters in Spain are typically horizontal.
In India, they are mainly vertical. In apartments they can be
mounted in the ceiling space over laundry-utility rooms.
countries, where ambient temperature is colder, tiny point-of-use
electric storage water heaters with capacities ranging from
8 to 32 litres (2 to 6 gallons) are made for installation in
kitchen and bath cabinets or on the wall above a sink. They
typically use low power heating elements, about 1 kW to 1.5
kW, and can provide hot water long enough for hand washing,
or, if plumbed into an existing hot water line, until hot water
arrives from a remote high capacity water heater. They are sometimes
used when retrofitting a pump and recirculating plumbing in
a building is too costly or impractical. Since they maintain
water temperature thermostatically, they will supply hot water
at extremely low flow rates, unlike tankless heaters.
countries, like Singapore, India: An ideal storage water heater
may vary from 10 L to 35 L Usage of 6 Smaller
hot water heaters are sufficient as ambient weather and water
temperature are moderate.
vessel of the Water heater is the single most important feature
of a water heater. The best heaters have a copper inner vessel/container.
The second most important feature may be the type of heating
element. The cartridge elements score over tubular elements.
and other improvements
the more insulation the better, since it reduces standby
heat loss "BTUs. Hot water heaters are available with insulation
ratings ranging from R-6 to R-24. It may be possible to add
an extra insulating blanket or jacket on the outside of a poorly
insulated hot water heater to reduce heat loss. The most common
type of water heater blanket is fiberglass insulation with a
vinyl film on the outside. The insulation is wrapped around
the tank and the ends are taped together. It is important that
the blanket be the right size for the tank and not block air
flow or cover safety and drainage valves, the controls, or block
airflow through the exhaust vent, if any. In very humid locations,
adding insulation to an already well-insulated tank may cause
condensation problems, potentially causing rust, mold, or operational
heaters have PUF (Polyurethane Foam) insulation. In countries
where serviceability is very important, PUF capsules are kept
between the inner tank and the outer body. Depending upon the
insulation efficiency, star rating is given in India.
include check valve devices at their inlet and outlet, cycle
timers, electronic ignition in the case of fuel-using models,
sealed air intake systems in the case of fuel-using models,
and pipe insulation. The sealed air-intake system types are
sometimes called "band-joist" intake units. "High efficiency"
condensing units can convert up to 98% of the energy in the
fuel to heating the water. The exhaust gases of combustion are
cooled and are mechanically ventilated either through the roof
or through an exterior wall. At high combustion efficiencies
a drain must be supplied to handle the water condensed out of
the combustion products which are primarily carbon dioxide and
plumbing in the United Kingdom the space-heating boiler is set
up to heat a separate hot water cylinder or hot water
heater for potable hot water. Such water heaters are often
fitted with an auxiliary electrical immersion heater
for use if the boiler is out of action for a time. Heat from
the space-heating boiler is transferred to the hot water heater
vessel/container by means of a heat exchanger, and the boiler
operates at a higher temperature than the potable hot water
supply. Most potable water heaters in North America are completely
separate from the space heating units.
combustion water heaters manufactured since 2003 in the United
States have been redesigned to resist ignition of flammable
vapors and incorporate a thermal cutoff switch, per ANSI Z21.10.1.
The first feature attempts to prevent vapors from flammable
liquids and gasses in the vicinity of the heater from being
ignited and thus causing a house fire or explosion. The second
feature prevents tank overheating due to unusual combustion
conditions. These safety requirements were made based on homeowners
storing, and sometimes spilling, gasoline or other flammable
liquids near their water heaters and causing fires. Since most
of the new designs incorporate some type of flame arrestor screen,
they require monitoring to make sure they don't become clogged
with lint or dust, reducing the availability of air for combustion.
If the flame arrestor becomes clogged, the thermal cutoff may
act to shut down the heater.
stove or wetback heater is the name (used in New
Zealand at least) for a simple household secondary water-heater
using incidental heat. It typically consists of a hot water
pipe running behind a fireplace or stove (rather than hot water
storage), and has no facility to limit the heating. In the UK,
this is called a back boiler. Modern wetbacks may run
the pipe in a more sophisticated design to assist heat-exchange.
In the UK,
electric water heating is often done by an immersion heater
fitted near the bottom of the hot water tank. The immersion
heater is a metal tube containing an insulated electric resistance
heater which is usually rated at 3 kilowatts.
heaters that have residual hot water storage in a vessel/container
heat, electrical water heaters can be a good match for an intelligent
electrical power distribution system, heating when the electrical
grid load is low and turning off when the load is high. This
could be implemented by allowing the power supplier to send
load-shedding requests, or by the use of real-time energy pricing.
water heaters, also called instantaneous, continuous flow, inline,
flash, on-demand or instant-on water heaters, are also available
and gaining in popularity. These water heaters instantly heat
water as it flows through the device, and do not retain any
water internally except for what is in the heat exchanger coil.
heaters are often installed throughout a household at more than
one point-of-use (POU), far from the central water heater, or
larger models may still be used to provide all the hot water
requirements for an entire house. The main advantages of tankless
water heaters are a continuous flow of hot water and energy
savings (as compared to a limited flow of continuously heating
hot water from conventional tank water heaters).
or combi boilers, combine the CH with the domestic hot
water (DHW) in one box. They are not merely infinitively continuous
water heaters having the ability to heat a hydronic heating
system in a large house. When DHW is run off, the combi stops
pumping water to the hydronic circuit and diverts all the boilers
power to instantly heating DHW. Some combis have small internal
water storage vessels combining the energy of the stored water
and the gas or oil burner to give faster DHW at the taps or
increase the DHW flowrate.
are rated by the DHW flowrate. The kW ratings for domestic units
are 24kW to 54kW, giving approximate flowrates of 9 litres per
minute to 23 litres per minute. There are larger commercial
units available. The high flowrate models will simultaneously
supply two showers.
advantage is that more than one combi unit may be used to supply
separate heating zones, giving greater time and temperature
control, and multiple bathrooms. An example is one combi supplying
the downstairs heating system and another the upstairs. One
unit may supply one bathroom and one another. Having two units
gives backup in case one combi is down.
are to be had in installation costs as water tanks and associated
pipes and controls are not required. This also saves space in
a home that may be given over to living space.
are highly popular in Europe, where in some countries market
share is 70%.
types and their advantages
tankless water heaters are located right where the water is
being used, so the water is almost instantly hot, which saves
water. They also save even more energy than centrally installed
tankless water heaters because no hot water is left in the pipes
after the water is shut off. However, point-of-use tankless
water heaters are usually used in combination with a central
water heater since they are usually limited to under 6 litres/minute
(1.5 US gallons/minute), as the expense of buying a heater for
every kitchen, laundry room, bathroom, or sink can outweigh
the money saved in water and energy bills. In addition, point
of use water heaters until recently were almost always electrical,
and electricity is often substantially more expensive than natural
gas or propane.
heaters can ideally be somewhat more efficient than storage
water heaters. In both kinds of installation (centralized and
POU) the absence of a tank saves energy as conventional water
heaters have to reheat the water in the tank as it cools off,
called standby loss. There is a misconception that the energy
lost by a tanked heater stored inside a home merely helps to
heat the home. This is true of an electric unit, but for a gas
unit most of this wasted energy leaves through the exhaust vent.
However, if the building needs to be cooled to maintain normal
temperatures this results in a loss in efficiency With a central
water heater of any type, water is wasted waiting for water
to heat up because of the cold water in the pipes between the
faucet and the water heater. This water waste can be avoided
if a recirculating pump is installed, but at the cost of electricity
to run the pump and wasted energy to heat the water circulation
through the pipes.
water heaters can be divided into two categories: "full on/full
off" and "modulated". Full on/full off units do not have a variable
power output level; the unit is either on or off. Modulated
tankless water heaters base the heat output on the flow of water
running through the unit. This is usually done through the use
of a 'flow sensor', modulating gas valve, inlet water temperature
sensor and an outlet water temperature sensor-choke valve and
means that the occupants should receive the same output temperature
of water at differing velocities, usually within a close range
of ±2 °C.
efficiency condensing combination boiler provides both space
heating and water heating, an increasingly popular choice in
UK houses. In fact, combination boilers now account for over
half of all the new domestic boilers installed in Britain.
parts of South America as well as Costa Rica and Puerto Rico,
a point of use style water heater commonly referred to as the
"Electric Shower Head" is used in many residential and some
commercial installations. As the name implies, an electric heating
element is incorporated into such shower heads to heat the water.
However, many of these units are often poorly installed, often
with exposed wiring in wet locations.
North American conditions, the most cost effective configuration
from an operating viewpoint is usually to use a central tankless
water heater for most of the house, and install a point of use
tankless water heater at any distant faucets or bathrooms. However,
this may vary according to how much electricity, gas and water
costs in the area, the layout of the house, and how much hot
water is used. Only electric tankless water heaters were available
at first and they are still used for almost all point of use
heaters, but natural gas and propane heaters are now common.
When consumers are considering a whole house gas tankless unit,
they are advised to look at how the unit functions when raising
the water temperature by about 42 °C (75–77 °F). Thus,
if they live in a cold weather climate, they are advised to
look at the unit's capacity with 3-10 °C (38–50 °F)
inlet water temperatures, and find a size that produces approximately
15 litres/minute (4 gpm) even in winter if they have a typical-sized
house and desire what is called a 2-appliance heater. This same
unit may produce 25-30 litres/minute (6.3–6.9 gpm) in summer
with higher inlet temperatures, but there is greater interest
in year round production and usability.
certain advantages to tankless water heaters :
term energy savings: Although a tankless water heater
might cost more initially it may result in both energy and
cost savings in the long term. As water is heated only when
it is needed, there is no storage of hot water. With a tank,
water is kept warm all day even if it never gets used and
heat loss through the tank walls will result in a continual
energy drain. Even in homes or buildings with a high demand
for hot water, a tankless water heater may provide some level
of savings. In a typical home these savings are quite substantial.
If instant hot water at the taps at limited hours is a priority,
a recirculation system similar to those in the tank-type systems
can be accommodated by using an aquastat and timer in order
to decrease the added heat loss from the recirculation system.
It has to be said though that if the storage tank is highly-insulated
- a few tanks are available with excellent levels such as
100 mm or more polyurethane foam - the savings become minimal.
hot water: As water is heated while passing through the
system an unlimited supply of hot water is available with
a tankless water heater. Although flow rate will determine
the amount of hot water that can be generated at one time
it can be generated indefinitely.
physical space: Most tankless water heaters can be mounted
on a wall or even internally in a building's structure. This
means less physical space has to be dedicated to heating water.
Even systems that can't be mounted on walls take up less space
than a tank-type water heater.
risk of water damage: No stored water means there is no
risk of water damage from a tank failure or rupture. Improper
piping in either the hot or cold water lines to the tankless
water heater can result in water damage though.
compensation A temperature compensating valve tends to
eliminate the issue where the temperature and pressure from
tankless heaters decrease during continuous use. Most new
generation tankless water heaters, like the Takagi TK3, TK3
PRO, TM32, and the TM50 stabilize water pressure and temperature
by a bypass valve and a mixing valve which is incorporated
in the unit. Modern Tankless are not inversely proportional,
because they will regulate the amount of water that is created
and discharged, therefore stabilizing water temperature by
utilizing a flow control valve. Flow speed is not the issue,
but delta T is the important issue to address. The wider the
temperature rise, the less flow you receive from the unit.
The smaller the temperature rise, the more flow you receive.
The flow control valve in conjunction with thermistors, maintains
a stable temperature throughout the use of the unit.
heaters also have several disadvantages:
cost: Installing a tankless system comes at an increased
cost, particularly in retrofit applications. They tend to
be particularly expensive in areas such as the US where they
are not dominant, compared to the established tank design.
If a storage water heater is being replaced with a tankless
one, the size of the electrical wiring or gas pipeline may
have to be increased to handle the load and the existing vent
pipe may have to be replaced, possibly adding expense to the
retrofit installation. Many tankless units have fully modulating
gas valves that can range from as low as 10,000 to over 1,000,000
BTUs. For electrical installations (non-gas), AWG 10 or 8
wire, corresponding to 10 or 6 mm², is required for most
POU (point of use) heaters at North American voltages. Larger
whole house electric units may require up to AWG 2 wire. In
gas appliances, both pressure and volume requirements must
be met for optimum operation.
source flexibility Tankless heaters are limited to a choice
between expensive and CO2 problematic energy sources:
gas and electricity. This makes it impossible to include other
heat sources, including renewable energy. Tank-type systems
have a much wider choice of heat sources available, such as
district heating, central heating, solar heating, geothermal
heating, micro CHP and ground-coupled heat exchangers.
delay: There is a longer wait to obtain hot water. A tankless
water heater only heats water upon demand, so all idle water
in the piping starts at room temperature. Thus there is a
more apparent "flow delay" for hot water to reach a distant
faucet. Many models sold in the UK have introduced a small
heat store within the combi. to address this problem. This
"keep hot" facility considerably improves the standard of
hot water service, which some people otherwise find unacceptably
poor with a combi., but it uses considerably more fuel especially
use: There is a short delay between the time when the
water begins flowing and when the heater's flow detector activates
the heating elements or gas burner. In the case of continuous
use applications (showers, baths, washing machine) this is
not an issue. However, for intermittent use applications (for
example when a hot water faucet is turned on and off repeatedly)
this can result in periods of hot water, then some small amount
of cold water as the heater activates, followed quickly by
hot water again. The period between hot/cold/hot is the amount
of water which has flowed though the heater before becoming
active. This cold section of water takes some amount of time
to reach the faucet and is dependent on the length of piping.
systems: Since a tankless water heater is inactive when
hot water is not being used, they are incompatible with passive
(convection -based) hot water recirculation systems. They
may be incompatible with active hot water recirculation systems
and will certainly use more energy to constantly heat water
within the piping, defeating one of a tankless water heater's
cooler temperatures: Tankless water heaters often have
minimum flow requirements before the heater is activated,
and this can result in a gap between the cold water temperature,
and the coolest warm water temperature that can be achieved
with a hot and cold water mix.
constant shower temperature: Similarly, unlike with a
tank heater, the hot water temperature from a tankless heater
is inversely proportional to the rate of the water flow—the
faster the flow, the less time the water spends in the heating
element being heated. Mixing hot and cold water to the "right"
temperature from a single-lever faucet (say, when taking a
shower) takes some practice. Also, when adjusting the mixture
in mid-shower, the change in temperature will initially react
as a tanked heater does, but this also will change the flow
rate of hot water. Therefore some finite time later the temperature
will change again very slightly and require readjustment.
This is typically not noticeable in non-shower applications.
with low supply pressure: Tankless systems are reliant
on the water pressure that is delivered to the property. In
other words, if a tankless system is used to deliver water
to a shower or water faucet, the pressure is the same as the
pressure delivered to the property and cannot be increased,
whereas in tanked systems the tanks can be positioned above
the water outlets (in the loft/attic space for example) so
the force of gravity can assist in delivering the water, and
pumps can be added into the system to increase pressure. Power
showers, for example, cannot be used with tankless systems
because it cannot deliver the hot water at a fast enough flow-rate
required by the pump.
metering and peak electrical loads: Tankless electric
heaters, if installed in a large percentage of homes within
an area, can create demand management problems for electrical
utilities. Because these are high-amperage devices, and hot
water use tends to peak at certain times of the day, their
use can cause short spikes in electricity demand, including
during the daily peak electrical load periods, which increases
utility operating costs. For households using time-of-use
metering (where electricity costs more during peak periods
such as daytime, and is cheaper at night), a tankless electric
heater may actually increase operating costs if the hot water
is used during peak times. Instanteous-type heaters are also
problematic if they are connected to district heating systems,
as they raise peak demands, and most utilities prefer all
buildings to have hot water storage.
water heater is water heating system that integrates technology
traits from both the Tank-type water heaters and the Tankless
water heater maintains water pressure and consistent supply
of hot water across multiple hot water applications, and like
its tankless cousins, the hybrid is efficient and can supply
a continuous flow of hot water on demand.
solar heater panels with integral storage tank
locales, solar powered water heaters are used. Their solar collectors
are installed outside dwellings, typically on the roof or nearby.
Nearly all models are the direct-gain type, consisting of flat
panels in which water circulates. Other types may use dish or
trough mirrors to concentrate sunlight on a collector tube filled
with water, brine or other heat transfer fluid. A storage vessel/container
is placed indoors or out. Circulation is caused by natural convection
or by a small electric pump. At night, or when insufficient
sunlight is present, circulation through the panel can be stopped
by closing a valve and/or stopping the circulating pump, to
keep hot water in the storage tank from cooling. Depending on
the local climate, freeze protection, as well as prevention
of overheating, must be addressed in their design, installation,
type of solar water heater is the evacuated tube collector.
It is usually mounted on a roof, and has a row of glass tubes
containing heat conducting rods, typically copper. The rods
act as heating elements in a circulating loop of antifreeze.
The captured heat is transferred into the domestic hot water
system by a heat exchanger. This design is smaller and more
efficient than traditional flat plate collectors, and works
well in very cold climates. The evacuated description
refers to air having been removed from the glass tubes to create
a vacuum. This results in very low heat loss, once the inside
coating has absorbed solar radiation.
like Iceland and New Zealand, and other volcanic regions, water
heating may be done using geothermal heating, rather than combustion.
potentially can explode and cause significant damage, injury,
or death if certain safety devices are not installed. When the
water temperature exceeds 100 °C (212 °F), the water will remain
a liquid inside the tank, but when the pressure is released
as the water comes out the tap the water will boil, potentially
inflicting steam burns. Water above about 88°C (190 °F)
will cause burns on contact. A safety device called a temperature
and pressure relief (T&P or TPR) valve, is normally fitted
on the top of the water heater to dump water if the temperature
or pressure becomes too high. Most plumbing codes require that
a discharge pipe be connected to the valve to direct the flow
of discharged hot water to a drain, typically a nearby floor
drain, or outside the living space. Some building codes will
allow for the discharge pipe to terminate in the garage.
If a gas
or propane fired water heater is installed in a garage, it is
recommended, and many codes require, that it be elevated at
least 18 inches (0.46 m) above the floor to reduce the
potential for fire or explosion due to spillage or leakage of
combustible liquids in the garage. Furthermore, some local codes
mandate that tank-type heaters in new and retrofit installations
be braced to an adjacent wall with a strap to prevent them from
tipping over and breaking the water and gas pipes in the event
of an earthquake.
houses where the water heater is part of the space heating boiler,
and plumbing codes allow, some plumbers will install a "Watts
210" device in place of a TPR valve. When the device senses
that the temperature reaches 99 °C (210 °F), it will
shut off the gas supply and prevent further heating. In addition,
an expansion tank or exterior pressure relief valve must be
installed to prevent pressure buildup in the plumbing from rupturing
pipes, valves, or the water heater.
is a serious concern with any water heater. Human skin burns
quickly at high temperature, e.g., only 60 °C (140 °F),
but also at lower temperatures, e.g., 50 °C (120 °F),
if the exposure times are sufficient. Older people and children
often receive the most serious scalds due to disabilities or
slow reaction times. In Australia and elsewhere it is common
practice to put a tempering valve on the outlet of the water
heater. A tempering valve mixes enough cold water with the hot
from the heater to keep the outgoing water temperature fixed,
often set to 50 °C. Without a tempering valve, reduction
of the water heater's setpoint temperature is the most direct
way to reduce scalding. However, for sanitation, hot water is
needed. Most residential dishwashing machines, for example,
include an electric heating element for increasing the water
temperature above that provided by water heaters. The result
of mixing hot and cold water via a tempering valve is also referred
to as tempered water.
two seemingly conflicting safety issues around water heater
temperature — the risk of scalding from excessively hot
water, and the risk of incubating bacteria colonies, particularly
Legionella, in water that is not hot enough to kill them. Both
risks are potentially life threatening and are balanced by setting
the water heater's thermostat to at least 50 °C (120 °F).
The European Guidelines for Control and Prevention of Travel
Associated Legionnaires’ Disease recommend that hot water should
be stored at 60°C (140 °F) and distributed such that a
temperature of at least 50°C and preferably 55°C is achieved
within one minute at outlets. If there is a dishwasher without
a booster heater, it may require a water temperature within
a range of 57 °C (134.6 °F) to 60 °C (140 °F)
for optimum cleaning, in which case tempering valves set to
no more than 55°C can be applied to faucets to avoid scalding.
(Note: Tank temperatures above 60°C may produce calcium deposits,
which could later harbor bacteria, in the water tank. Temperatures
above 60°C may also cause gradual erosion of glassware in a
ORANGE COUNTY, MISSION VIEJO, PLUMBING
SLAB LEAKS, WATER HEATERS, TANKLESS WATER HEATERS,
LEAKS, BATHROOMS, KITCHENS, PIPING,
REPIPING, INSTALLATION OF TUBS, SINKS, DRAINS, HOT TUBS, BATHTUBS,
SHOWERS, TOILETS, FLOODING, WATER SOFTENERS, WATER FILTERS,
APPLIANCE INSTALLATION, WATER DAMAGE, DRAIN LINES, FAUCETS,
WATER HEATING, WATER, REVERSE OSMOSIS, VALVES, KITCHEN APPLIANCES,
You Can Afford the Best!
" Call today for fast service!
do you become famous? Helping people! Changing their lives
and making a difference in their lives.
Loving them... Eric Brenn
This Business was Awarded - Best in
Business, Orange County CA, Visit:
Orange County, CA
plumbing with emphasis on affordable services-we are
almost 50% less in cost than all competitors. Heating
and air conditioning services include complete installation,
repair, and replacement. Offers quality plumbing services
as well as indoor air quality products., We are a full
service plumbing company, 24-hours a day, specializes
in copper, polybutylene plumbing slab leak repair and
repipe. We do slab leak repair, copper pipe leak repair,
poly pipe leak repair, slab leak locate, and in wall
plumbing leak repair
Viejo 92656, 92698,
Anaheim 92801, 92802, 92803,
92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814,
92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899,
Brea, 92821, 92822,92823,
Buena Park, 90620 ,90621,90622,
90624, Capistrano Beach,
Corona del Mar, 92625,
Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627,
Dana Point, 92629,
East Irvine, 92650,
El Toro, 92609,
Foothill Ranch, 92610,
Fountain Valley, 92708,
Fullerton, 92831, 92832,
92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838,
Garden Grove, 92840, 92841,
92842, 92843 ,92844, 92845, 92846,
Huntington Beach , 92605,
92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649,
Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604,
92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92617, 92618, 92619, 92620,
La Habra, 90631, 90632,
La Palma, 90623,
Ladera Ranch, 92694,
Laguna Beach , 92651, 92652,
Laguna Hills ,92653, 92654,92607,92677,
Laguna Woods, 92637,
Lake Forest, 92630,
Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721,
Midway City, 92655,
Mission Viejo, 92690, 92691,
Newport Beach , 92658,
92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663, 92657,
Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859,
92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869,
Placentia, 92870, 92871,
Rancho Santa Margarita 92688,
San Clemente, 92672, 92673,
San Juan Capistrano, 92675,
Santa Ana , 92701, 92702,
92703, 92704, 92705 ,92706, 92707, 92711, 92712, 92725.92735,
Seal Beach , 90740,
Sunset Beach 90742,
Trabuco Canyon, 92678,
Tustin ,92780, 92781,92782,
Villa Park, 92861,
92683, 92684, 92685,
Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886,
ORANGE COUNTY, PLUMBER IN ORANGE COUNTY, PLUMBER MISSION VIEJO